Cambios Laboral, Reforma Ley Federal de Trabajo, Rafael Alday, TMEC, Contratos Colectivos, Sindicatos, Teletrabajo, Mecanismo de Respuesta Rápida,

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Cambios Laborales en Mexico | 2020 y 2021

6 Jan , 2021  

VTZ preparó una serie de publicaciones para comenzar 2021 relacionados con el webinar “Experiencias 2020, Expectativas 2021“, este post sobre los cambios laborales en México durante el 2020 y 2021 fue preparado por Rafael Alday.

Rafael Alday, Abogado, VTZ, Laboral
Rafael Alday

¿Looking for Labor Trends in Mexico in English?

Iniciativa para Prohibir el Outsourcing o Subcontratación

Finalmente, no podemos pasar por alto que a principios de diciembre se ha venido manejando la famosa iniciativa presidencial de desaparecer el outsourcing o la subcontratación laboral, un cambio laboral trascendental si se concreta.


Actualización sobre la Reforma


Este proyecto o propuesta reformaría la Ley Federal de Trabajo y diferentes leyes fiscales y seguridad social. VTZ emitió una alerta legal al respecto, el cual está disponible aquí.

Dicha iniciativa de reforma causó mucho ruido en la iniciativa privada porque eliminaría una forma de contratación que, si bien ha sido abusada en muchos casos en perjuicio de los trabajadores, en muchas otras es un instrumento de mucha utilidad para las empresas como las maquiladoras o la industria automotriz. Lo curioso es que cuando la iniciativa presidencial tiene como fin eliminar el outsourcing, precisamente, las propias empresas del gobierno como el Banco del Bienestar sacaron una nueva licitación para contratar un número importante de trabajadores por esta vía de outsourcing para el año próximo. El gobierno y sus empresas tienen a muchos de sus trabajadores en outsourcing, alrededor de 25.5 % a 27.7 %. 

T-MEC y los Cambios Laborales en México

Tal y como se comentó en el post Comercio Internacional de México durante el 2020 y expectativas para 2021, México tuvo que adecuar su legislación laboral para estar acorde con el T-MEC, las reformas que se dieron fueron primordialmente en materia de derechos colectivos en materia sindical, así como instituciones de gobierno, incluyendo de justicia.

Recordemos que los EE.UU. y Canadá presionaron a México proteger la explotación laboral, trabajo infantil y otros aspectos laborales. Con estos temas y, particularmente aquel de los sindicatos y contratos colectivos, nuestros socios comerciales buscan que los salarios en México aumenten poco a poco, para que la mano de obra barata no sea el factor decisivo o atractivo para que las empresas se establezcan e instalen en nuestro territorio. Desde luego, lo que se busca es nivelar la cancha de juego en materia de salarios en la región de Norte América.

La Reforma Laboral

La reforma laboral que se dio desde el 2019 entró en vigor este 2020, unos días antes de la entrada en vigor del T-MEC. Esta reforma se refiere sobre todo a la libertad de los trabajadores para sindicalizarse; es decir, ahora los famosos contratos de protección que tenían las empresas con sindicatos de carácter blanco realmente se están muriendo o su existencia se está complicando. Los trabajadores realmente en muchas ocasiones ni sabían que estaban sindicalizados, simplemente se firmaba el contrato entre patrones y sindicatos y permeaba a todos o gran parte de los trabajadores como parte del sindicato.

Los Cambios Laborales en la Democracia Sindical y Negociación Colectiva

Entonces, a partir de esta actualización de las leyes en materia laboral en junio de 2020, se tienen que certificar que los trabajadores quieran participar en un sindicato. Es decir, tiene que haber una certificación, ya sea a través de un notario público, la Junta Local o Federal de Conciliación y Arbitraje, o el nuevo Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral. Ahora bien, es preciso recordar que si bien es cierto que la reforma laboral entró en vigor el año pasado, también lo es que su implementación será gradual, es decir por regiones o estados de la república. En algunos estados ya entró en vigor “por completo” la reforma laboral en cuanto a los procedimientos y las nuevas autoridades en materia laboral. 

La reforma laboral exige que, por lo menos, el 30% de los trabajadores, en votación libre y secreta, tienen que estar de acuerdo con pertenecer al sindicato de su preferencia a través de una asamblea, la cual deberá estar certificada. Posteriormente, el acta de la asamblea certificada tiene que inscribirse, por el momento, en las Juntas de Conciliación y Arbitraje Local o Federal, o bien en el Centro Federal de Conciliación y Registro Laboral si ya está operando en el estado. Este nuevo organismo descentralizado será eventualmente la única autoridad autorizada en registrar todos y cada uno de los contratos colectivos de trabajo, sin ese registro realmente no será válido un contrato colectivo de trabajo. 

Paneles Laborales T-MEC

Ahora bien, el T-MEC prevé la posibilidad de que se establezcan paneles de solución de controversias en materia laboral. El propio texto del tratado refiere que en dado caso que una Parte del T-MEC considera que otra Parte está incumpliendo con sus obligaciones podrá realizar consultas (“quejarse”), lo cual podría detonar eventualmente una solicitud para establecer un panel, integrado por expertos, quien resolverá las quejas y reclamaciones. Probablemente veremos este año cómo operara y funcionara este mecanismo, la expectativa es que mejoren las regulaciones y las leyes en materia laboral sin la necesidad controversias.

En VTZ hemos preparado material sobre el capítulo Laboral del T-MEC, no duden consultarlo aquí.

Home Office: Cambios Laborales por la Pandemia

Otra de los cambios laborales interesantes que hubo en material laboral fue la reforma recientemente aprobada en cuanto al teletrabajo o “home office”. Ahora, hay ciertas responsabilidades para el patrón para proporcionar a sus trabajadores todos los elementos tecnológicos, pagar incluso una parte proporcional de la energía eléctrica o del servicio de internet, así como el derecho a la desconexión de los trabajadores.

La pandemia de COVID evidentemente obligó a muchas empresas y sus trabajadores a recurrir al home office, provocando tiempos de trabajo más largos porque se piensa que los trabajadores están en su casa y que están conectados la mayor parte del tiempo. Entonces, el espíritu de esta reforma contempla el derecho a la desconexión, es decir, los trabajadores están en casa, no están saliendo, están haciendo home office, pero se debe respetar los horarios de trabajo conforme a lo contratado.

¿Qué va a pasar con el outsourcing en México?

En conclusión, ha habido muchos cambios a la legislación laboral en los últimos dos años, se está implementado la reforma laboral, y habrá que darle seguimiento a lo que suceda al próximo periodo de sesiones del congreso por el tema del outsourcing. Las empresas deberán prepararse para el 2021 en temas laborales, sin duda.

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